Translation and Cultural Adaptation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) Into Nepalese for Use with Bhutanese Refugees
Martha B. Baird, PhD, APRN/CNS-BC, CTN-A
Joseph W. LeMaster, MD, MPH
Anastasia Harding, MSN, APRN, FNP-BC

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Suggested APA 6th Edition Formatted Reference
Baird M. B., LeMaster, J. W., Harding, A. (2016). Translation and cultural adaptation of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) into Nepalese for use with Bhutanese refugees. Online Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and Healthcare, 6(1), 14-30. doi: 10.9730/

Abstract: This article presents a translated and culturally adapted version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25), a measure of anxiety and depression, into Nepalese, the language of the Bhutanese refugee population. In this study, focus groups with three Bhutanese refugee men, and two women, living in the United States, proved invaluable to enhance linguistic accuracy and semantic equivalence. Several items on the HSCL-25 were found to be colloquialisms specific to the English language and others were deemed culturally inappropriate. It may be necessary to conduct separate focus groups interviews with men and women in some cultural groups to achieve authentic and valid responses.

Keywords: Bhutanese, refugees, Nepalese, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25), instrument translation

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